More on the case of the rogue code from friend of Jr Deputy Accountant, Skeptical CPA:
"A Goldman Sachs Group Inc. [GSG] computer programmer who quit last month was arrested and charged with stealing codes related to a high-speed trading program that he helped develop. ... According to a complaint filed Saturday, Mr. Aleynikov downloaded 32 megabytes of data from [GSG's] computer system with 'the intent to convert that trade secret to the economic benefit of someone other than the owner.' ... In the court filing, FBI Special Agent Michael G. McSwain alleged that Mr. Aleynikov claimed after being arrested that he only intended to gather 'open source' files that he had worked on, then 'realized that he had obtained more files than he intended.' ... According to the FBI, Mr. Aleynikov got a job offer earlier this year at an unnamed Chicago firm that planned to triple the $400,000-a-year salary he was paid at [GSG]. The unnamed firm is 'new' and 'intended to engage in high-volume automated trading,' the FBI said in the court filing. Mr. Aleynikov's last day at [GSG] was around June 5. ... [GSG's] surveillance systems caught the alleged breach, and [GSG] notified the FBI", Susanne Craig and Amit Efrati at the WSJ, 7 July 2009, link.
"At a hearing in New York federal court on Saturday, assistant US attorney Joseph Facciponti [JF] argued that the [sic] Mr. Aleynikov's actions could harm Goldman and the capital markets. 'The bank has raised the possibility that there is a danger that somebody who knew how to use this program could use it to manipulate markets in unfair ways,' the prosecutor said, according to Bloomberg", Greg Farrell and Justin Bear at the FT, 8 July 2009.
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According to the Collins English Dictionary 10th Edition fraud can be defined as: "deceit, trickery, sharp practice, or breach of confidence, perpetrated for profit or to gain some unfair or dishonest advantage". In the broadest sense, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and also a civil law violation. Defrauding people or entities of money or valuables is a common purpose of fraud, but there have also been fraudulent "discoveries", e.g. in science, to gain prestige rather than immediate monetary gain
*As defined in Wikipedia