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According to the Collins English Dictionary 10th Edition fraud can be defined as: "deceit, trickery, sharp practice, or breach of confidence, perpetrated for profit or to gain some unfair or dishonest advantage".[1] In the broadest sense, a fraud is an intentional deception made for personal gain or to damage another individual; the related adjective is fraudulent. The specific legal definition varies by legal jurisdiction. Fraud is a crime, and also a civil law violation. Defrauding people or entities of money or valuables is a common purpose of fraud, but there have also been fraudulent "discoveries", e.g. in science, to gain prestige rather than immediate monetary gain
*As defined in Wikipedia

Friday, December 31, 2010

More on the Incestuous Relationship Between Goldman Sachs and the Fed

We've learned that Goldman Sachs borrowed a total of $590 billion from the Fed in and around 2008 which leads many to believe that GS was insolvent then and needed a cash infusion to belay itself from its own toxic assets. Below are excerpts from Fred N. Sauer's article which examines Goldman Sachs's financial statements and discovers "A Mysterious Business" which shows that GS did not survive the financial meltdown except for the bailout from taxpayers. He says that if interest rates were to go up, then Goldman Sachs would go down!

December 31, 2010

Goldman Sachs Prospers at Taxpayers' Expense
By Fred N. Sauer - American Thinker

If prudent investors can only make .5% on short term assets, how does Goldman Sachs prosper?

Robert Rubin was a very powerful man. After 26 years and rising to the level of Co-Senior Partner, he left Goldman Sachs in 1994 to become Treasury Secretary in the Clinton Administration. His first major undertaking was during the Mexican bailout of 1995.

...Rubin drew criticism in Congress for using a Treasury Department account under his personal control to distribute $20 billion to bail out Mexican bonds, of which Goldman was a key holder.

For 1998, the first year which we have public financial information on Goldman Sachs, their total revenue was $22 billion and their net profit was $1.256 billion. It is highly probable that the $20 billion was extremely helpful to Goldman Sachs -- if not essential to its continuing existence.

And Robert Rubin had some very powerful friends.

In April 1998 Travelers Group announced an agreement to undertake the $76 billion merger between Travelers and Citicorp, and the merger was completed on October 8, 1998. The possibility remained that the merger would run into problems connected with federal law. Ever since the Glass-Steagall Act, banking and insurance businesses had been kept separate. Weill and Reed bet that Congress would soon pass legislation overturning those regulations... . To speed up the process, they the Board of Directors...Robert Rubin (Secretary of Treasury during Democratic Clinton Administration) whom Weill was close to... .

Here is a short history of Sandy Weill's march to riches. He began as a licensed broker at Bear Stearns. By 1962, he had formed his own firm, Carter, Berlind, Potoma and Weill... . By 1979, it had completed 15 acquisitions of other brokerage firms which made it the second largest brokerage firm in the United States. It sold Shearson Loeb Rhoades to American Express. By 1992, he bought 27% of Travelers Insurance Company, the company he would later merge with Citicorp in 1998, while making billions of dollars for himself.

‘Billionaire Sanford Weill made ‘Citigroup' into [one of] the most powerful financial institutions since the House of Morgan a century ago... . Just days after the Clinton administration (including the Treasury Department) agrees to support the REPEAL [of the Glass-Steagall Act], Treasury Secretary Robert Ruin, the former co-chairman of a major Wall Street investment bank, Goldman Sachs, raises eyebrows by accepting a top job at Citigroup as Weill's chief lieutenant... .

...November 12-1999, President Clinton stated, ‘Glass-Steagall (FDR Banking Bill) is no longer appropriate for our economy. This was good for the industrial age. The (1999) Financial Modernization Bill is the key to rising paycheck and great security for ordinary Americans'... .

What is this Goldman Sachs that issues forth such powerful people as Robert Rubin? What is its magic? Maybe we can find something out from their financial statements? If we look at the Goldman Sachs Group, Inc., and Subsidiaries Consolidated Statements of Earnings for December 2009, the company identifies itself as being in three businesses: Investment Banking, Trading and Principal Investments, and Asset Management and Securities Services. To get a better historic picture of these businesses, we have gone back to the beginning of Goldman Sachs' life as a publically held company in 1998. From this data, we have calculated the following long term growth rate of various financial variables taken from Value Line and Goldman Sachs' own financial statements:

. . . .

But to see just how dangerous a business the Mysterious Business is, you have to also consider the debt structure of the company and a series of financial ratios.

This is really a lousy company. It makes you wonder how it got this big and how it has survived the 2007-2010 financial meltdown.

Highlights, or should we say lowlights, of the Mysterious Business data are: Total debt is 11x Equity in 2009 and 12.7x Equity in 2008; Profits would have been $7.598 billion in 2009, a loss of $4.798 billion in 2008, and a profit of $5.187 billion in 2007. This produces cumulative profits of $7.987 billion or an average profit of just $2.662 billion per year. The return on total debt in 2009 is just 1.89% and the return on total capital is just 2.9% in the same year. Electric utilities do better than this with little volatility and a lot less debt. Yes, it definitely would be a lousy business.

Well, as a matter of fact, it did not survive this crisis. It was saved by the United States taxpayers who through the Federal Reserve breathed life into its dead corpse.

Lender of last resort indeed. The Federal Reserve pulled back the curtain yesterday on its emergency lending during the financial panic of 2008 and 2009... .

We learn, for example, that the cream of Wall Street received even more multibillion dollar assistance than previously advertised by either the banks or the Fed. Goldman Sachs used the Primary Dealer Credit Facility 85 times to the tune of nearly $600 billion. Even in Washington, that's still a lot of money. Morgan Stanley used the same overnight lending program 212 times from March 2008 to March 2009. This news makes it impossible to argue that either bank would have survived the storm without the Fed's cash.

The infusion of $600 billion would have basically covered the amount of Goldman Sachs' short term liabilities of $651.958 billion in 2008 and $593.958 billion in 2009. Goldman Sachs apparently had to refinance all of its short term liabilities.

Recall our earlier calculations when we determined how many 10 Year Treasury Securities yielding 3.59% it would take to generate 2009's interest income of $13.907 billion? It was $387,000,000,0000. We also found out that to get 2009's interest cost of $6.500 billion, the lender would have to charge just 1.67%. Why don't we see what the respective interest income rate and interest expense would be for $600,000,000,000. The required rate of interest income is 2.3%. So, if the interest spread is 2.14, the required interest rate expense is 1.08%. How fascinating! It looks like, or we infer, that somebody lent Goldman Sachs $600,000,000,000 of United States Treasury Securities at an approximate duration of 5 years. The 5 Year Note had a 2.3% rate of interest in December 2009.

If the company had 35,400 employees, the $600 billion would equate to $16,949,152 per employee. If the Federal Reserve would treat you to a personal no recourse loan with the same terms and conditions as Goldman Sachs, you would have an income of $389,824 and an expense of $183,050. This would be a net income of $206,777 for just doing nothing -- how great!

Let me just say one thing about $600 billion. You could build 100 $6 billion nuclear power plants in America for this amount of money. But our corrupt government wants to cripple our economy because some nuclear plant might emit toxic waste. So, the EPA won't issue realistic permits to build them. This same government has no problem giving Goldman Sachs the same amount of money after it has generated enough toxic financial returns to destroy itself and other fools who lent them all this money. The hard working U.S. taxpayer might end up repaying this $600 billion. And, who would lend you money at 1.08% to buy anything?

But Goldman Sachs is not out of the woods yet. The whole effort of the Federal Reserve is to keep interest rates as low as possible for as long as possible to give all the lousy assets held by them and the American financial industry a chance to heal and increase in value. So, you can continue to expect to make less than .5% on your cash assets for a long, long time.

If interest rates rise above 2.3% while they are holding these securities, or worse yet, any securities of lower quality than U.S. Treasuries, their value will drop below $600 billion, which means they could lose money on them if they sell them or exchange them before the end of the 5 year duration. And once again their net worth could be eroded by a decline in the value of these assets. Any precipitous rise in interest rates could threaten the "life" of Goldman Sachs again. Not only would it threaten them, but a precipitous rise in interest rates would also threaten all other financial institutions who were turned into toxic waste generators by the removal of the Glass-Steagall Act in 1998.

...Robert Kutter (Stanford University) testified before Barney Frank's Committee on Banking and Financial Services in Oct. 2007. ‘Since repeal of Glass-Steagall (FDR Banking Act) in 1999, after more than a decade of de facto inroads, super banks have been able to re-enact the same kinds of structural conflicts of interest that were endemic in the 1920s - tending to speculators, packaging and securitizing credits and then selling them off, wholesale or retail, and extracting fees at every step along the way. And, much of this paper is even more opaque to bank examiners than its counterparts were in the 1920s. Much of it isn't paper all, and the whole process is supercharged and automated formulas.'

The real crime of the matter is revealed by our discovery of exactly the nature of Goldman Sachs Mysterious Business. Quite simply, the Mysterious Business is the largest highly leveraged hedge fund in the world that is run exclusively for the benefit of the employees of Goldman Sachs. All risks are absorbed by the Federal Reserve System with the U.S. taxpayers standing by at all times as ultimate guarantors.

Except for this alliance, Goldman Sachs would have disappeared under the waves of the financial crisis whose destructive excesses could no longer be prevented by the Glass-Steagall Act. The process by which this happened is a disgrace at best.

Robert Rubin left the top of his career at Goldman Sachs in 1995 to become Treasury Secretary in the Clinton Administration. He quickly, and controversially, disbursed $20 billion to support the bailout of Mexico's government bond market in which Goldman Sachs had extreme, if not life threatening, risk. He then became the architect and engineer of the removal of the Glass-Steagall Act whose principal immediate beneficiary would be Sandy Weill, who would make billions by merging his Travelers Group into Citicorp. Not surprisingly, Robert Rubin would go to work almost immediately for Sandy Weill as a top executive for Citicorp.

When the dust finally cleared, it became obvious that the demise of Glass-Steagall allowed the risk-taking traders at Citicorp to jeopardize nearly $1 trillion worth of customer deposits, which is the main reason the feds had to spend so much bailing it out. With that, Bob Rubin's Wall Street career was over. He was forced to resign from the Citi board and the firm itself with his reputation in tatters, but not without earning more than $100 million.

To make $100 million in 10 years, or $10 million a year, let's see how much money you would need to get from the Fed on the terms and conditions of Goldman Sachs' bailout. If the net interest income is 1.22 (.0230 minus .0108), it would take $81,967,213 loan for 10 years. Good luck with your less than .5% earnings on your prudent savings.

Goldman Sachs and its spawn, Robert Rubin, prove conclusively and absolutely that the regulatory doctrine of "Too Big To Fail" is a catastrophic failure.

Read the entire article here


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